Finite automata include two different classes Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) and the Non deterministic Finite Automata (NFA). These are converted from one to another i.e. Non-Deterministic Finite Automata to Deterministic Finite Automata (NFA to DFA) conversion and Deterministic Finite Automata to Non-Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA to NFA) conversion. Some more enhancement of NFA machine is NFA with ε moves i.e. (ε-NFA) can be converted into DFA and vice versa. A DFA is directly converted into Regular expression. Below diagram explain about all conversions of Finite Automata conversion.

**Figure (1) : (NFA→ DFA) and (DFA→ NFA) conversion block diagram**

## Non Deterministic Finite Automata to Deterministic Finite Automata (NFA to DFA conversion) :

The goal is to construct a Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) from given Non-Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) machine which is much faster in recognition of an input string. The main idea behind this conversion to construct a DFA machine in which each state will correspond to a set of NFA states.

### Worst Case complexity of (NFA→ DFA) conversion:

The worst-case complexity of NFA to DFA conversion is O(2^{N}) of sets of states. The DFA can have exponentially many more states than the NFA in rare cases.

## NFA to DFA conversion Algorithm:

**Input:**

A NFA S = States = { s_{0}, s_{1}, …, s_{N}} = S_{NFA
} δ = Move function = Move_{NFA
} Move’(S, a) → Set of states

**Output:**

A DFA S = States = {?, ?, …, ?} = S_{DFA
} δ = Move function = Move_{DFA
} Move(s, a) → Single state from S_{DFA}

Main idea:

Each state in S_{DFA} will be a set of states from the NFA S_{DFA} = { {…}, {…} , …, {…} }

(The name of the states in constructed DFA is arbitrary and can be changed later if desired.)

**Method:**

Construct a transition table Transition_{D}. Each DFA state is a set of NFA states. Transition_{D} simulates in parallel all possible moves N can make on a given string.

Operations to keep track of sets of NFA states:

ε Closure (S):

Set of states reachable from state S via epsilon.

ε Closure (T):

Set of states reachable from any state in set T via epsilon.

move (T, a):

Set of states to which there is an NFA transition from states in T on a symbol a.

**Algorithm:**

initially, ε-Closure (S_{0}) in Transition_{D}.

While unmarked state T in Transition_{D}_{
} mark T

for each input symbol ‘a’

do u = ε Closure (T, a)

If u is not in Transition_{D}

then add u to Transition_{D}

Transition [T, a] = U

Following algorithm shows a computation of ε -Closure function.

Push all states in T onto stack.

initialize ε-Closure (T) to T

while stack is not empty

do pop top element t

for each state u with ε-edge

t to u

do If u is not in ε-Closure(T)

do add u ε Closure (T)

push u onto stack

### Remarkable Steps to convert NFA→ DFA:

- Construct the transition table of given NFA machine.
- Scan the next states column in the transition table from initial state to final state.
- If any of the next state consists more than one state on the single input alphabet. Then merge them and make it new state. Place this new constructed state in DFA transition table as present state.
- The next state of this new constructed state on input alphabet will be the summation of each next state which parts in the NFA transition table.
- Repeat step 2 to step 4 until all the states in NFA transition table will be scanned completely.
- The finial transition table must have a single next state at a single input alphabet.

**Example:**

**Figure (1): NFA**

Construct the equivalent DFA of the NFA given in figure (1).

Step 1: Transition Table of NFA from Figure (1):

Present State | Next State | |

0 | 1 | |

→q_{0} | {q_{2}} | Φ |

q_{1} | Φ | {q_{0}, q_{2}} |

q_{2}* | {q_{0}, q_{1}} | {q_{0}} |

**Step 2: Transition Table of DFA:**

Present State | Next State | |

0 | 1 | |

→{q_{0}} | {q_{2}} | Φ |

{q_{2}} | {q_{0}, q_{1}} | {q_{0}} |

{q_{0}, q_{1}} | {q_{2}} | {q_{0}, q_{2}} |

{q_{0}, q_{2}} | {q_{0}, q_{1}, q_{2}} | {q_{0}} |

{q_{0}, q_{1}, q_{2}} | {q_{0}, q_{1}, q_{2}} | {q_{0}} |

how to convert a c language program into tokens using lex tool. Please do this practically.

thank you so much I love your work